Glossary

These terms are commonly used in the microwave communications field.
# A B C D E F G H I K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y
2G – Second Generation mobile phone system (GSM, IS-95)
3G – Third Generation mobile phone system
4G – Fourth Generation mobile phone system
4:2:0 – Digital video coding process. Chrominance levels are sampled in line alternation mode with reduces bandwidth.
4:2:2 – Digital video coding process. Chrominance levels of all lines are sampled with reduces bandwidth.

A
ABS – 32-bit ABS encryption standard
AES – Advanced Encryption Standard, a Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS), is an algorithm to reduce electronic data. It processes block ciphers.
AC – Alternating Current (Frequency above 0 Hz)
ADSL – Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line
AGC – Automatic gain control is an adaptive system found in many electronic devices. The average output signal level is fed back to adjust the gain to an appropriate level for a range of input signal levels
Alpha – Path loss exponent (rate of path loss change with distance)
AM – Amplitude Modulation
APR – Access Point Repeater
ASK – Amplitude Shift Keying
ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange, a character encoding scheme.
ASI – Asynchronous Serial Interface, is a data format used to carry MPEG data streams. An ASI stream may contain one or more video and/or audio streams.
AWGN – Additive White Gaussian Noise

B
BER – Bit Error Rate
Bps – Bits per second
BPSK – Binary Phase Shift Keying
BNC – Bayonet Neill-Concelman, Coaxial connector.

C
C/N – CNR, Carrier to noise ratio. In decibels (dB), is specified as the ratio between the power in the carrier of the desired signal and the total received noise power
CCTV – Closed Circuit Television
CCU – Communications Control Unit
CDMA – Code Division Multiple Access
CF – Crest Factor (peak to average power ratio of the RF envelope)
Codec – A device that transforms analog input into a digitally coded output and transforms digital signals into analog output
COFDM – Coded Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex is a standard for terrestrial digital TV transmission.
COMPOSITE – Composite video is the format of an analog television (picture only) signal before it is combined with a sound signal and modulated onto an RF carrier. In contrast to component video’ (YPbPr) it contains all required video informations, including colors in a single line-level signal.
CVBS – Colour Video Baseband Signal is an analogue video signal carrying colour and luminance information within one signal.
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D
DAB – Digital Audio Broadcasting
dB – Decibel (ratio in log scale)
dBc – Decibel relative to main signal power
dBi – dB(isotropic) The forward gain of an antenna compared with the hypothetical isotropic antenna, which uniformly distributes energy in all directions. Linear polarization of the EM field is assumed unless noted otherwise.
dBm – Decibel relative to 1 milliwatt
DC – Direct Current (0 Hz)
DDS – Direct Digital Synthesiser
D-ENG – Digital Electronic News Gathering is a standard for digital video and audio transmission in the broadcast industry.
DFT – Discrete Fourier Transform
DMT – Discrete Multi-Tone
DPSK – Differential Phase Shift Keying
DSBSC – Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier
DS-CDMA – Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access
DSP – Digital Signal Processing
DSSS – Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
DVB – Digital Video Broadcasting
DVB-C – Digital Video Broadcasting – Cable
DVB-S – Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite
DVB-T – Digital Video Broadcasting Terrestrial, digital TV transmission standard.

E
EMC – ElectroMagnetic Compatibility, labels that electromagnetic devices do not have a negative impact on other electromagnetic devices.
EBNR – Energy per Bit to Noise Ratio
ETS – European Telecommunications Standard

F
FDM – Frequency Division Multiplexing
FEC – Forward Error Correction, algorithm used to reduce error rates in digital data transmission.
FFT – Fast Fourier Transformation. A fast algorithm for performing a discrete Fourier transform
FFT-MRC – FFT-Maximum Ratio Combining (a diversity method implemented by BMS)
FIR – Finite Impulse Response (digital filter)
FM – Frequency Modulation, analogue modulation technique.
Fs – Sample Frequency
FSK – Frequency Shift Keying

G
GA – Genetic Algorithm
GHz – Gigahertz – 10^9 Hz
GMSK – Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
GSM – Global System for Mobile communications

H
HDMI – High Definition Multimedia Interface is an interface for digital video.
HDTV – High Definition Television
Hz – Hertz (cycles per second)

I
ICI – Inter-Carrier Interference
IEC – International Electrotechnical Committee
IF – Intermediate Frequency, mixes frequencies up or down to other frequencies.
IFFT – Inverse Fast Fourier Transformation
IMD – Inter-Modulation Distortion
IQ – Inphase Quadrature
ISI – Inter-Symbol Interference
ISM – Industrial Scientific Medical
ISO – International Standards Organisation
 

K
KBIT/S – Kilobits per seconds (1024 bits per second).
K – Kelvin
Kbps – Kilo bits per second (10^3 bps)
kHz – Kilohertz – 10^3 Hz
Km – Kilometer (10^3 m)
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L
Lambda – RF wavelength
LINEAR POWER AMPLIFIER – A linear power amplifier amplifies the output signal of a modulator up to a level of 1W (appr. 30 dBm).
LNA – Low Noise Amplifier
LO – Local Oscillator
LOS – Line Of Sight

M
M – Metre
MBIT/S – Megabits per second (1024000 bits per second)
MHz – Megahertz – 10^6Hz
MP@ML – Main Profile at Main Level is a part of the MPEG-2 standards for storage or transmission of video feeds of up to 15 Mbit/s
MPEG – Motion Pictures Experts Group is a standard organisation developing video compression techniques.

N
NF – Receiver Noise Figure
NTSC – National Television Systems Committee is an analogue television standard mainly used in the USA and Latin-American countries.

O
OFDM – Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex is bandwidth efficient modulation technique.

P
PAL – Phase Alternation Line is an analogue television standard mainly used in Europe.
PAPR – Peak to Average Power Ratio
PCM – Pulse Code Modulation is a technique used to digitize analogue signals.
PLL – Phase Locked Loop
PM – Phase Modulation
PRC – Peak Reduction Carriers
PRS – Pseudo Random Sequence
PSK – Phase Shift Keying

Q
QAM – Quadrature Amplitude Modulation is a modulation technique used to transmit digital signals.
QPSK – Quadrature Phase Shift Keying is a modulation technique used to transmit digital signals..

R
RAKE – Multiple tap multipath equalisation for CDMA
RC – Raised Cosine (Guard Period)
RF – Radio Frequency
RGB – Red, Green, Blue are the primary colours used in video applications.
RMS – Root Mean Squared
RS-232 – RS-232 is a serial bi-directional asynchronous interface for wired data transmission.

S
SDI – Serial Digital Interface is an interface for digital video and audio transmission.
SFN – Single Frequency Network
SIR – Signal to Interference Ratio
SMA – SubMiniature A is a coaxial connector used to mount antenna.
SNR – Signal to Noise Ratio
SSB – Single Side Band
S-VIDEO – Separated Video is a video signal with different signals for luminance and chrominance.
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T
TDM – Time Division Multiplexing
TDMA
Time Division Multiple Access
TS – Transport Stream is a data stream format defined by MPEG.

U
UHF – Ultra High Frequency (Frequency range here: 450 MHz to 890 MHz)
UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunications System
µs – Microsecond (10^-6 s)
USB – Universal Serial Bus is a 4-pole connection for data transfer between devices.

V
VDE – Verband Der Elektrotechnik e.V. is a German association for electrical and electronic technologies.

W
W – Watt (energy per unit time, one joule per second)
W-CDMA – Wide-band Code Division Multiple Access
WLAN – Wireless Local Area Network
WLL – Wireless Local Loop

X
XLR – XLR (Screen Life Return) is a connector of two or more poles.
 

Y
Y/C – Y (luminance) and C (chrominance), see S-Video.
YUV – YUV is a video signal with different signals for luminance and chrominance components

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